Principles of Pavement Management
Preservation of existing roads and street systems has become a major activity for all levels of government. Because municipalities must consistently optimize the spending of their budgets, funds that have been designated for pavement must be used as effectively as possible. The best method to obtain the maximum value of available funds is through the use of a pavement management system.
Pavement management is the process of planning, budgeting, designing, evaluating, and rehabilitating a pavement network to provide maximum benefit with available funds.
A pavement management system is a set of tools or methods that assist decision makers in finding optimal strategies for providing and maintaining pavements in a serviceable condition over a given time period. The intent is to identify the optimum level of long-term funding to sustain the network at a predetermined level of service while incorporating local conditions and constraints.
The streets that are repaired while in good condition will cost less over their lifetime than those left to deteriorate to a poor condition. Without an adequate routine pavement maintenance program, streets require more frequent reconstruction, thereby costing millions of extra dollars.
The key to a successful pavement management program is to develop a reasonably accurate performance model of the roadway, and then identify the optimal timing and rehabilitation strategy. The resultant benefit of this exercise is realized by the long term cost savings and increase in pavement quality over time. Pavements typically deteriorate rapidly once they hit a specific threshold. A $1 investment after 40% lifespan is much more effective than deferring maintenance until heavier overlays or possibly reconstruction are required just a few years later.
Once implemented, an effective pavement information management system can assist agencies in developing long-term rehabilitation programs and budgets. The key is to develop policies and practices that delay the inevitable total reconstruction for as long as practical yet still remain within the target zone for cost effective rehabilitation. That is, as each roadway approaches the steepest part of its deterioration curve, apply a remedy that extends the pavement life, at a minimum cost, thereby avoiding costly heavy overlays and reconstruction.The following image illustrates the concept of extending pavement life through the application of timely rehabilitations.
Ideally, the lower limit of the target zone shown in the image above would have a minimum PCI value in the 60 to 70 range to keep as many streets as possible requiring a thin overlay or less. The upper limit would tend to fall close to the higher end of the Very Good category – that is a pavement condition score approaching 85. Other functions of a pavement management system include assessing the effectiveness of maintenance activities, new technologies, and storing historical data and images.
For most municipalities, a prioritization methodology based on pavement condition, pavement materials, functional class, and strength rating is used to analyze the network condition and develop the proposed 5 year rehabilitation plan.
The analysis methodologies and data collection technologies at IMS are based on ASTM D6433 Standard Practice for Roads and Parking Lots Pavement Condition Index Surveys for assessment of pavement surface condition and the International Roughness Index (IRI) for quantification of pavement roughness. These measurements of pavement quality are combined to form an overall 0 to 100 Pavement Condition Index (PCI), with 100 being the best.
Want to learn more about setting up a pavement management program in your city? Check out "Designing and Implementing a Pavement Management System" - An IMS Whitepaper
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